Greetings One and All, welcome to my globetrotting travel blog. Travelling can be such a great adventure, there are so many fabulous destinations to visit and if you can learn a bit about the culture before you go, you will enjoy yourself even more. Wherever you decide to travel to whether it is to a tropical beach to soak up the sun, a fast paced city break for some culture or a sailing tour around some glorious archipelago, research where you are going to so that you can find any wonderful hidden gems that you might not have known about. Would be such a pity to miss out on something amazing because you didn’t know about it. Enjoy your visit to my site and come back again soon!
Early mapmaking started out as cave drawings around 30,000 years ago, or with ancient philosophers several thousand years ago charting the heavens. But the origin of the modern, detailed and accurate map to various scales dates from the 18th century and is a military product. All over the world, countries’ armed forces and civil servants …View full post
The number of people anticipate a vacation for months, only to have some sort of catastrophe occur? Besides the apparent jet lag, insect bites, sunburn, and changes in water and eating habits, there are the more major dangers of gastrointestinal disorder, or the flu. All those foreign infections and bacteria simply waiting to destroy your …View full post
The continent of Asia is regarded as one of the most culturally diverse places in the world. Each country boasts historical monuments, religious and cultural icons and friendly and interesting people. When travelling, choosing which parts of Asia to visit can be a tall order because you won’t want to miss anything out. Here are …View full post
India is one of the few locations worldwide where spending wildlife and experience holidays can end up being your unforgettable experience. In fact, it will not be wrong to say that India is among the few nations on the planet that offers immense chances to explore it’s diverse natural appeal and experience activities that are …View full post
Greetings One and All, welcome to my globetrotting travel blog. Travelling can be such a great adventure, there are so many fabulous destinations to visit and if you can learn a bit about the culture before you go, you will enjoy yourself even more. Wherever you decide to travel to whether it is to a …View full post
Early mapmaking started out as cave drawings around 30,000 years ago, or with ancient philosophers several thousand years ago charting the heavens. But the origin of the modern, detailed and accurate map to various scales dates from the 18th century and is a military product. All over the world, countries’ armed forces and civil servants in charge of defence mapped their and their neighbours’ territory to extend their political control at home, collect taxes more efficiently, defend their territory or conquer elsewhere.
By the late 19th century, the map producers had developed into professional cartographers using the best technological mapping aids of the time. Their maps became adapted for civilian as well as military uses. By the late 20th century, these cartographic offices had grown into autonomous government agencies known as geographical institutes or land surveys, with some becoming part of agriculture or environment ministries. However, many remain at least nominally a department of the national armed forces.
This is how the Ordnance Survey of Great Britain began. It started life as a Drawing Office within the Board of Ordnance, the precursor of the War Office and later Defence Ministry that was based in the Tower of London’s White Tower since the 14th century. The year was 1716 and the Duke of Argyll, John Campbell, had just completed the rout of the first Jacobite rising that broke out in 1715 and was led by the Old Pretender, James Francis Edward Stuart.
The job of the Drawing Office was to provide reliable maps of the difficult terrain in Scotland that had prolonged the campaign by Hanoverian monarchs to suppress the Highland clans and the Jacobite rebellions. This acquired greater urgency with the 1745 Jacobite rebellion led by the Young Pretender, Charles Edward Stuart, son of the Old Pretender, which was finally defeated in April 1746 at the Battle of Culloden.
In 1747, King George II commissioned the Drawing Office to produce a military survey and detailed maps of the Highlands that would enable construction of military roads. Simultaneously, landowners in the Scottish Lowlands began to appreciate the value of good mapping for management of their estates and to reclaim wastelands. The military and economic interests overlapped to create the state mapping agency.
The first map, on a scale of one inch to 1,000 yards, was compiled by Lieutenant Colonel David Wilson, a quartermaster of the Duke of Cumberland’s forces, with the assistance of William Roy, a factor at the Clan Gordon estates in the Lowlands (the Gordons supported the British ) and a talented draughtsman and engineer.
Anglo-French Triangulation Project
William Roy was keen to survey the whole of Great Britain, but it took until 1790 for this to begin for the southern English coast because of fears of an imminent French invasion. The following year, the Board of Ordnance acquired the Ramsden theodolite made by Yorkshire instrument maker Jesse Ramsden. Roy, who died in 1790, ensured the accuracy of this project by earlier measuring an accurate baseline at Hounslow Heath, the future location of Heathrow Airport, to Hampton Poor House on the Hanworth Road in Hampton, Surrey. This was part of a triangulation project by the Royal Society in London and the French Academy of Sciences to establish the relative locations of astronomical observatories in London and Paris.
Public Demand for Maps
The first map on a one inch to a mile scale of Kent was produced in 1801 by the Ordnance Survey. Within 20 years, a third of England and Wales had been mapped. Public demand for the maps gathered pace.
In 1824, Ordnance Survey staff moved to map Ireland. The 2,000 employees involved were civilians but were under military supervision of the Royal Engineers and Royal Sappers. Irish maps on a six inches to a mile scale were completed by 1846, although the first maps were published in the 1830s.
Railway developments and public demand for maps resulted in the 1841 Ordnance Survey Act. But a fire that year at the Tower of London led to further disarray. The Ordnance Survey moved to offices in Southampton, where it remains, and it published the 25 inch to a mile maps in 1895. These include maps of 400 towns with populations of over 4,000.
During World War I, the Ordnance Survey prepared maps of France and Belgium. In World War II, these Ordnance Survey maps also covered South Africa, Italy and the Netherlands, including districts occupied by the German army.
National Grid Reference System
The launch of the national grid reference system in 1938 set the Ordnance Survey on a modernisation course. The metre was adopted as the unit of measurement. The grid divides the country into 500 x 500 km squares, with a digit and letter system giving co-ordinates for each 100-metre square within it. One-inch scale maps remained for a further 40 years until they were superseded by a series on a 1:50000 scale. Older maps from the 19th century have been re-scaled to this measure. The agency also produces more detailed mapping on 1:10,000 and 1:1,250 scales.
The Ordnance Survey’s flagship digital map, the OS MasterMap, was published in November 2001. The map records every fixed feature in Great Britain that is larger than a few metres.
Features on this map have their own topographical identifier (TOID) in national grid co-ordinates. The map is produced in layers at ground level or at building level. The maps are updated on a continuous basis and are never more than six months out of date.
The Ordnance Survey, like it counterparts in other countries, has a virtual monopoly on geographical information in Britain. Since 1999, it has also acted as a commercial entity and has to be self-funding from the sale of its products. Raw data from its surveys is not freely available to the public, as is the case with similar agencies in Ireland or the United States.
The number of people anticipate a vacation for months, only to have some sort of catastrophe occur? Besides the apparent jet lag, insect bites, sunburn, and changes in water and eating habits, there are the more major dangers of gastrointestinal disorder, or the flu. All those foreign infections and bacteria simply waiting to destroy your trip! Right here are some easy pointers to make your trip healthier and happier.
Take air travel. When I moved here from the U.K., I became an expert in the art of flying, sustaining 22 return trips from London in 24 months. For fars away, think about adjusting a bit to the time difference of your destination. I constantly try to obtain up half an hour earlier each morning starting 2 weeks prior to a London air travel. It’s a bit anti-social, specifically when someone calls and you’re in bed at 8:30 P.M., but it certainly works. I can adapt to at least 3 hours of the 5-hour time difference here on the East Coat, before I even leave! Then, to ensure sleep on the plane, always make use of little foam earplugs ( attempt pharmacies, hardware shops, or gun shops), and an eye mask- nothing interrupts me! A number of Calms Strength or organic Valerian, and I’m out.
Also, a wonderful travel idea is to try a foam neck brace from a medical supply. It stops your head lolling about. Get the large size, so that your head is entirely supported. I find them much better than those badly developed little neck pillows. And other guests and crew are especially good to you!
You should always drink lots of great water, not alcohol or coffee on the airplane, as they are dehydrating. Eat lightly, as you don’t desire your body to use up its energy digesting a full tummy of food. Likewise the cabin air is very dry, and this can play havoc with the mucus membranes of your sinuses, leaving them susceptible to possible distributing infections from all individuals in an confined area. Use a saline nasal spray (from any drugstore) as typically as you remember, and suck on chewable Ester C with the air travel- this will also help to protect you.
Try not to touch your face, especially your eyes, with your hands while you travel. This is an specifically useful tip, as everything you touch has actually been just recently touched by other hands, and the cold and flu germs are really infectious. To that end, take a little package of wipes, to clean your hands as often as possible.
At your location, attempt not to sleep till nighttime if possible. At bed time, take 2 mgs of melatonin, available at organic food establishments. Melatonin is secreted from the pineal gland in your brain when it is time for sleep. In other words, it can reset your time clock- personally I discover it amazing. Given that I have actually started using it I have actually had next to no jet lag.
Digestion disruptions are a usual inconvenience for tourists. Some individuals get constipated nearly the minute they leave house. Take magnesium capsules with you, and take 500 mg a day for the first couple of days of your journey. Also there are the herbs such as Cascara Sagrada or Senna to develop a gentle laxative, plus, make sure to drink a lot of water.
A bigger trouble is the bacterial hazard, typically caused by E. Coli, or Salmonella, the germs that trigger dysentery, and even parasites such as the typical giardia. Everyone knows to drink just bottled water, stay clear of ice cubes, etc., however the most vital insight is to take large quantities of a good quality probiotic item from Natren, Natrol, Metagenics, Twin Labs, and so on. These advantageous bifidobacteria can help protect you from attacks by unfriendly bacteria. A close friend of mine recently made it through a trip through the depths of India untouched, while her traveling companions dropped one by one with severe “Montezuma’s Retribution”, understood in the UK as “Delhi Belly”. They spent much of their trip running for bathrooms. All she did was take 3 or four capsules of acidophilus 4 times a day. Nevertheless, if you do suffer a disturbance, which does not clear up swiftly, visit your GP when you get home, especially if diarrhea, gas, or bloating remain, or if you reduce weight. I’m working now with a customer who fell under a river in Thailand. Parasites can be nasty and tenacious, so do not linger.
The continent of Asia is regarded as one of the most culturally diverse places in the world. Each country boasts
historical monuments, religious and cultural icons and friendly and interesting people. When travelling, choosing which parts of Asia to visit can be a tall order because you won’t want to miss anything out. Here are a few of the highlights to help with that decision.
All walking enthusiasts with a bucket list are likely to have the Great Wall of China somewhere on that list. Sections of the wall that are visited infrequently will take you back in time to view the remnants of China’s history. The Qing tombs, where emperors of the Qing dynasty are buried, give a fascinating insight into the way that emperors were revered in days gone by. Beijing has its own cultural highlights, including the Forbidden City. Another cultural attraction that is worth going out of your way to see is the army of Terracotta Warriors in Xi’an.
Formerly known as the Khmer Empire, Cambodia in South-East Asia is one of the most diverse countries in the world in terms of the groups of people inhabiting it. The capital, Phnom Penh, is the cultural, political and economic hub of the country, and this can be contrasted with the thirty ‘hill tribes’ living in the highlands in scattered temporary villages. These have a traditional set-up, with elders in charge of the tribe and traditional hunter-gathering methods used to glean sustenance alongside cultivated vegetables.
All cultural holidays of Asia should take in Tibet and its famous Buddhist culture. Sightseeing at the tombs of the Valley of the Kings can be combined with a trip to the Yumbulakhang castle and Samye monastery. For a more unusual trip, it is worth visiting one of the hermit retreats of the Buddhist monks, such as that at Drak Yerpa. Tibet is a place of religious, cultural and historic importance which will provide the experience of a lifetime whichever parts you decide to visit.
Much like neighbouring Tibet, Bhutan, located in the magnificent Himalayas, is known as a Buddhist kingdom. It is also a stronghold for ethical and sustainable tourism, with fewer visitors than other parts of Asia. There is an abundance of monasteries and unique architecture. The vibrant culture extends to the entertainment, with regular dance festivals called ‘tsechus’ taking place throughout the country. The scenery is equally vibrant, with laws protecting the forests and ensuring that at least 60 per cent of the country will always remain forested.
Located in the south of Asia, India is famous for its cultural landmarks such as the iconic Taj Mahal in Agra, built by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan as a memorial to his third wife. India is also famous for its production of tea in the huge plantations. In particular, Darjeeling tea is grown in the area of the same name, and many tourists take a trip to explore the plantations. In the same area, it is possible to take an elephant safari or a cruise on the river or just explore the famous Himalayan mountain range.
Located in eastern central Asia, Mongolia is a fascinating country that has welcomed notable change during the past century. It is the most sparsely populated country in the world, containing only small areas of habitable land. In the early 1990s, the country went from communist rule to a market economy, and it has subsequently opened its doors the world and to tourists. It is possible to travel on foot, on horseback or by bicycle as well as by using traditional modes of transport. Tours can also incorporate trips to nomadic camps, allowing travellers to experience a truly different culture and way of life. Many tourists will go to the national celebration, the Nadaam Festival, to see displays of archery, horse racing and wrestling.
Sri Lanka is known for its wildlife and scenery, but it also has areas of notable cultural and historical significance. From the ancient cities of Anuradhapura and Polonnaruwa to the temples of Dambulla and Kandy, you can get a glimpse of the Sri Lanka of days gone by. For an idea of the modern culture in rural areas, it is worth heading to some of the small and welcoming villages. The National Parks will give visitors the chance to look for some of the rare wildlife, such as crocodiles, elephants and leopards.
One of the less visited of the Asian countries, Kazakhstan offers mountaineers the chance to trek through mountains that are similar to the Alps but almost entirely uninhabited. The only people that you are likely to meet in the Tien Shan mountains are the nomads, such as the Kyrgyz and Kazakh people. This is a real eye-opener for anyone interested in finding out how people live away from what we would regard as civilisation.
This is another place where it is possible to meet tribes and experience a truly different culture and way of life. The ancient city of Luang Prabang offers an insight into an era when the king’s palace on the banks of the Mekong River was the focal point for the country. Nearby, the Pak Ou caves contain hundreds of miniature Buddhist sculptures, with the small figurines in various traditional positions representing activities such as meditation, teaching and peace.
India is one of the few locations worldwide where spending wildlife and experience holidays can end up being your unforgettable experience. In fact, it will not be wrong to say that India is among the few nations on the planet that offers immense chances to explore it’s diverse natural appeal and experience activities that are seldom found in any other parts of the world.
Plentiful wildlife, scenic grandeur, unparalleled adventures and differed cultural natural beauties are just couple of countable aspects that integrate jointly to give a unique glimpse of this special place and take pleasure in safari trip. Absolutely it is one of the few destinations on earth that is worth to be explored a minimum of once in a life time.
Typically whenever we think of safaris and experience most of the time we think of other areas outside India but today we cannot overlook India’s varied eco-tourism that has actually slowly brought in the attention of regional and international travellers. Exploring Indian wild sanctuaries and jungles can be life-long memory for any vacationer who has deep passion for wild experience or photography.
Besides this, Indian national forests and sanctuaries are deemed as perfect destinations for those who want to enjoy safari tours and get acquainted with some of the most special types like Bengal Tiger, Rhinoceros or phenomenal natural beauty. This distinct quality of India has made it among the most popular safari traveller locations of the world. Below is some of the few popular safari tour choices that can one can travel in India. These are just couple of recommendations as the possibilities in India are endless.
Mountain Biking Safari – Mountain biking is a very strenuous sport and in last couple of years has actually acquired tremendous appeal. Mountain cycling has actually constantly been a enjoyment for a person who enjoys experience and when it is performed in middle of the luxurious surrounding of nature it becomes more delightful. Resolving to this truth, today it will not be wrong to state that subtle and diverse topography of India provides broad scope for mountain biking. It doesn’t matter whether it is the mountain ranges of the Himalayas or the south Indian mountainous trips, mountain cycling in India can be a satisfaction in India.
There are variety of places in India that offer a few of the best sliding for mountain biking worldwide. Set in the middle of ever-changing and thriving environments, Himalayan Range of mountains provide some hard to beat tracks for the experience bike fans. Most of these mountain bicycle trips here include some single track riding and asks technical skills. Apart from this, the major tourist attraction about mountain cycling safari in India is flying down complicated surfaces that can be more difficult.
Camel Safari – Camel Safaris of India are now one of Asia’s fastest selling experience holidays and safari tour programs. As the name suggests these safari trip programs generally consists of camel expeditions ranging from short flights to substantial journeys that may remind you of Lawrence of Arabia. Though the Great Indian Desert could not have big expanses of sand dunes or extraordinary spaces of wilds as just like that of the Sahara but it includes some magnificent castles and unspoiled towns. Its dune are more quickly available from railway stations or airports than those of many African nations.
Today camel safari in India is a excellent method to see the desert, go to the towns and know additional information about the culture and custom of Rajasthan in India. Apart from this, it likewise supplies various options for visitor to keep an eye out for the uncommon golden brown dune in the middle of a camel safari, undertaken by an licensed tour operator. A camel safari in India can likewise be an interesting experience for the inexperienced one as the windswept tracts of sand. In addition to this, stunning sun downs coupled with dawns on the offing can be a wonderful treat to watch. Though riding a camel is difficult as individuals think about, but it let you have wonderful experience to delight in and understand the vibrantly, living, extremely vibrant and welcoming service provided by local individuals of India.
Jeep Safari – Like camel safaris, another popular kind of safari that is acquiring appeal is the Jeep Safari. The Jeep Safari cannot just be livelier but likewise let one feel near to nature while driving with a few of the calmest and stunning landscape in India. Jeep safari in India offer finest alternatives to travel on hilly surface, a rugged surface or any other off beaten track in India.
In fact, jeep safari tours in India can let a traveller find and understand those aspects of India that he or she could just have read in the books or seen on helpful channels. Today there are number of jeep safari tours in India that covers some of the best places found in the Himalayan regions. Apart from hillsides, a tourist can likewise travel around the cities and deserts of Rajasthan on jeep safaris. The very best part of jeep safaris is – jeeps can take visitor to the interiors of a town or a town where heavy and big cars find tough to travel. This not only makes sure and let tourist have higher enjoyment but likewise provide chance to see much more.
Today there are numerous safari vacation choices in India that cannot just help vacationers rejuvenate their mind but it might also make them discover some of the most important lessons of life and that certain region. All that is needed is choosing the safaris trip program that tourist could prefer to belong of.